U.S. Workforce Forfeits Billions in Time Off Benefits Annually

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American workers permanently lost a total of 169 million days of paid time off across the workforce in 2013, according to a new analysis, "All Work and No Pay: The Impact of Forfeited Time Off."

These days could not be rolled over, could not be paid out, were not banked or used for any other benefit.

Conducted by Oxford Economics for the U.S. Travel Association's Travel Effect initiative, the study shows that by forfeiting this time American employees surrender$52.4 billionin benefits. That puts the value of a forgone day, where workers are providing free labor for their employers, at an average of$504per employee.  

"Americans are taking the value of their time for granted. By passing on vacation days and working instead, U.S. employees are serving as volunteers for their companies," saidAdam Sacks, founder and president of Oxford Economics' Tourism Economics division. "We discovered that this forfeited time has substantial individual, national and economic implications."

The analysis also highlights trends in American vacation habits. Notably, Americans are taking less vacation time than at any point in nearly the last four decades. In 2013, employees took an average of 16 days of vacation compared to an average of 20.3 days as recently as 2000.

"If this trend continues, the vacations of our childhoods could be a thing of the past — completely unknown by the next generation. That would be a true loss for our families and our country," saidRoger Dow, president and CEO of the U.S. Travel Association.

The economic potential of returning to the pre-2000 vacation patterns is massive: annual vacation days taken by U.S. employees would jump 27 percent (or 768 million days), delivering a$284 billionimpact across the entire U.S. economy.

Contrary to popular opinion, more time at the office does not correlate with a raise or bonus. In fact, employees who left 11-15 days unused are less likely (by 6.5 percent) to receive a raise or bonus than those who used all of their vacation days.

Employees who leave the most PTO unused are also more stressed. Americans who leave 11 days or more unused reported being "very" or "extremely" stressed with their work lives, compared to those who left less time on the table or took all their PTO (31 percent vs. 25 percent).

"America's work martyrs aren't more successful. We need to change our thinking. All work and no play is not going to get you ahead—it's only going to get you more stress," Dow added.

A study by the Travel Association that was unveiled in August showed many workers forgo time off for fear of losing their jobs or being replaced.

Dow called it a “work martyr complex. In part, it's because 'busyness' is something we wear as a badge of honor. But it's also because we're emerging from a tough economy and many feel less secure in their jobs. Unfortunately, workers do not seem to realize that forfeiting their vacation time comes at the expense of their overall health, well-being and relationships."

That study showed Americans construct many of their own biggest barriers to using time off. Workers cite returning to a mountain of work (40%) and the feeling that nobody else can do their work (35%) as the top reasons they leave PTO unused. The effects of a tough economy still linger, with one-third (33%) of respondents saying they cannot afford to use their PTO, and a fifth (22%) of workers expressing concern that they do not want to be seen as replaceable.



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